Protocol

Histology Protocols

Creative Bioarray provides an easily accessible reference for histological techniques. Here, we detail the techniques for investigating the expression of many different types of targets in a variety of tissue and samples from sections and cells to electron microscopy, covering a wide range of techniques from biospecimen treatment to detection of mRNA, apoptosis, and hypoxia. We provide step-by-step guide to techniques including guidelines, methods and notes.

Biospecimen Collection

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: A wide variety of specimen types may be collected for storage, depending on availability and study goals, such as tissues that from autopsy and transplant, cell lines, and so on.

Biospecimen Processing

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Specimens are processed according to the study design and the methods most appropriate for preserving the analytes of interest. For a particular specimen type and analysis, several processing methods may be appropriate.

Biospecimen Storage

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Depending on the intended laboratory analyses, and other considerations, specimens and their aliquots may be stored under different suitable conditions.

Biospecimen Information Management

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Driven by advances in molecular technologies, information management is critical to the molecular epidemiology research enterprise.

Fixation

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Freshly harvested tissue of interest should be immediately fixed to avoid degradation.

Decalcification

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Decalcification is required for processing bone tissue in routine diagnostic practice. Control of this step is crucial because it may have important consequences for establishing the diagnosis.

Decolorization

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Decolorization refers to the process of removing brightly colored organic impurities from the sample mixture. The procedure is usually carried out in the solution phase after the solid product and impurities are dissolved in a suitable solvent.

Dehydration

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: The process of replacing water contained in tissues or cells with a dehydrating agent is called tissue dehydration.

Wax Infiltration

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: After the tissue is completely transparent with the transparent agent, it is placed in the paraffin wax which is melted at about 65°C. The process of impregnation in the electric thermostat at 65°C is called wax immersion.

Embedding & Blocking Out

Classification: Biospecimen Treatment.

Guidelines: Embedding is to remove the fixed, dehydrated, transparent and wax-soaked tissue blocks from the final wax bath and place them into the embedding frame filled with molten paraffin wax. Embedding into blocks enables the tissue and embedding agent to be fused together and cooled rapidly. This procedure is called embedding.

For research use only. Not for any other purpose.