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Cardiac system is responsible for pumping oxygen-enriched blood to organs, tissues and cells in the body, and removing carbon dioxide and waste. The system consists of endothelial cells, myocytes, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which work together to maintain the function of the circulatory system. Abnormal cell proliferation and regulation in the cardiac system may lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Creative Bioarray can offer several types of human cardiac cells, which can be used in assays of adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, regenerative medicine, drug screening, and disease modeling.
Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the most common cell type in the heart. CF play a central role in the maintenance of extracellular matrix in normal heart and the synthesis of growth factors and cytokines. Under pathophysiological conditions, CF are involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and scar formation after cardiac infarction. Therefore, CF represent an attractive therapeutic candidate for heart disease. CF cultures have been widely used as a model to study the cardiac matrix remodeling by physiological (exercise) and pathological (hypertension) stressors.
Cardiac myocytes are the most physically energetic cells in the human body. They are highly specialized cells with high oxygen content and house a large number of mitochondria. They account for as much as 75% of the heart by mass. All cardiac myocytes are capable of spontaneous rhythmic depolarization and repolarization of their membranes. The contraction of cardiac myocytes is myogenic, which is independent of nervous stimulation. There is a complex signal network in cardiac myocytes that regulates the heart's rhythmic pumping. A better understanding of the cardiac signaling network will help to reveal the cellular mechanisms regulating to cardiac myocyte death. The ideal cell type for most cardiac microphysiological systems is primary human adult cardiac myocytes, because they are fully differentiated and are expected to most closely mimic the adult human disease process and drug response.
Human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC) intensively interact with cardiomyocytes and therefore have a characteristic phenotype different from other microvascular endothelial cells. HCMEC regulate vascular tone by releasing and degrading endothelium-derived vasoactive factors, and modulating the local levels of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators through their enzymatic activities. Many of these substances can also modify myocardial contractile behavior. In addition, the microvasculature has been shown to participate in the regulation of leukocyte recruitment, inflammation, and angiogenesis. They are also able to trans-differentiate into myofibroblasts, indicating a role in the abnormal accumulation of matrix and fibrotic disorders. The cultured HCMEC provide a valuable tool for understanding the physiological and pathophysiological correlation of HCMEC in cardiac function and disease.