Activins are homodimers or heterodimers of the various β subunit isoforms, belonging to the TGFβ family. Mature Activin A has two 116 amino acids residues βA subunits (βA-βA). Activin exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including mesoderm induction, neural cell differentiation, bone remodelling, haematopoiesis, and reproductive physiology. Activins plays a key role in the production and regulation of hormones such as FSH, LH, GnRH and ACTH. Cells known to express Activin A include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages, keratinocytes, osteoclasts, bone marrow monocytes, prostatic epithelium, neurons, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and ovarian granulosa cells. Activin A is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, and promotion of neuronal survival. Elevated levels of Activin A in human colorectal tumors and in post-menopausal woman have been implicated in colorectal and breast cancers, respectively. As with other members of the super-family, Activins interact with two types of cell surface trans- membrane receptors (Types I and II) which have intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activities in their cytoplasmic domains, Activin type 1 receptors, ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C and Activin type 2 receptors, ACVR2A, ACVR2B. The biological activity of Activin A can be neutralized by inhibins and by the diffusible TGF-B antagonist, Follistatin. Activin A is a 27.4 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer of two βA chains, each containing 116 amino residues. Recombinant Activin A produced by transient expression in non-transgenic plants contains a 6-His-tag at the N-terminal end and is purified by sequential chromatography (FPLC). It does not contain any animal-derived components or impurities. Please note: Recombinant human Activin A is identical to recombinant mouse and rat Activin A as numerous literary sources demonstrating the complete identity of the mature Activin A sequence among these three species.
Human SMAD2 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana
CAT# CSC-CTK0112-10 (10 μg); CAT# CSC-CTK0112-50 (50 μg)
Greater than 97% as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis.
The biological activity of Activin A is measured by its ability to inhibit proliferation of mouse plasmacytoma cell line (MPC-11) by the [3H]thymidine incorporation method. The ED50 determined by this assay was ≤ 5 ng/ml.
Less than 0.02EU/μg.
Lyophilized from a 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4).
Please centrifuge product briefly before opening vial. The lyophilized protein should be reconstituted in sterile, ultra-pure water to a concentration of 50 μg/ml. This solution can then be diluted into other aqueous buffers and stored at -20°C for future use.
Storage & Stability
The lyophilized protein, though stable at room temperature for up to 3 weeks, is best stored desiccated at -20°C. Reconstituted protein should be used immediately or stored long-term in undiluted working aliquots at -20°C. For long-term storage, it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
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