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Microglia

Microglia account for 0.5-16.6% of the total cell population in the human brain and 5-12% in the mouse brain. Under physiological conditions, the number and function of microglia are strictly controlled by the local microenvironment and the interaction with surrounding cells. In response to an insult, microglia have the ability to transform into different functional states, thereby modifying their morphology, proliferation, phagocytic activity, antigen presentation and the release of inflammatory factors.

Microglia generally polarize in two directions from a resting state. The classical activation is known as M1, which is the mediator of pro-inflammatory responses, producing and releasing ROS, nitrogen reactive species (NRS) and cytokines. The alternative activation, known as M2, is responsible for resolution and repair, involving in the production and release of trophic factors. The polarization of microglia has been clarified by measuring the markers both in vitro and in vivo.

Table 1. Polarization of activated microglia in CNS.

Classic nomenclatureNovel nomenclatureActivating moleculesPolarization
M0/Unpolarized M(-)None, M-CSF, or GM-CSFM-CSF or GM-CSF may be used to compare with macrophages
M1 M(LPS)LPS, IFNγ or botha.k.a. Classical activation
M(IFNγ)
M(LPS + IFNγ)
M2 M(IL4)IL4a.k.a. Alternative activation
M2a M(IL4 + IL13)IL4 and IL13Profile associated with anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages
M2b M(Ig + LPS)Immune complexes and LPSProfile associated with pro-inflammatory cell-surface protein expression but IL10 secretion in macrophages
M2c M(IL10 + TGFβ1)IL10 and TGFβ1Profile associated with tissue remodeling and immune suppression in macrophages

Microglia are the main immune cells of the CNS and are highly similar to macrophages. They act as the major inflammatory cell type in the brain and activate to respond to pathogens and injury. Although seeking out and eliminating pathogens is an important role, microglia have also been extensively studied for their harmful roles in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ischemic injury, and traumatic brain injuries.


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Species: Mouse
Cell Type: Microglia
Donor Status: Normal

Cat#: CSC-C4719Z INQUIRY

Species: Mouse
Cell Type: Microglia
Donor Status: Normal

Cat#: CSC-C4718Z INQUIRY

Species: Mouse
Cell Type: Microglia
Tissue Type: Brain
Donor Status: Normal

Cat#: CSC-C9343W INQUIRY

Species: Rat
Cell Type: Microglia
Tissue Type: Brain
Donor Status: Normal

Cat#: CSC-C1800 INQUIRY

Species: Human
Cell Type: Microglia
Tissue Type: Brain
Donor Status: Normal

Cat#: CSC-C1527 INQUIRY