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Glucose produced by the liver is a major energy source for the brain. Considering its critical dependence on glucose, it seems only natural that the brain is capable of monitoring and controlling glucose homeostasis. In addition to neuroendocrine pathways, the brain uses the autonomic nervous system to communicate with peripheral organs. Read more >
Post-mitotic neurons are particularly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks during their relatively long lifespan. Here, we report the anatomical distribution and subcellular localization of a molecule first identified as a DNA damage checkpoint protein. Immunocytochemical analysis of 53BP1 showed that this nuclear molecule is widely expressed in adult human and rat brains. Read more >
Recently, Trista North and colleagues showed that neuronal synthesis of serotonin is an essential key process for embryonic hematopoietic stem (HPS) cell production in zebrafish. Using their experimental design, they were able to show that neuronal serotonin activates the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and glucocorticoid receptor activity which in turn induces HPS cell formation. Read more >
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is the variable combination of signs of dysgenesis of the midline of the brain, hypoplasia of the optic nerves and hypothalamus-pituitary dysfunction, which is sometimes associated with a varied spectrum of malformations of the cerebral cortex.
Single-minded 1 (Sim1) is a basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor that is important for neuronal development in the hypothalamus. Loss-of-function mutation of Sim1 causes early-onset obesity. However, it is unknown whether and how Sim1 regulates bone remodeling. In this study, we found that adult-onset Sim1 deletion increases bone formation, leading to high bone mass. Read more >
Speculations on the involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of neuronal plasticity, in the aetiology of depression and the mode of action of antidepressive therapies, started to arise more than a decade ago. But still, conclusive evidence that adult neurogenesis contributes to antidepressive effects of pharmacological and physical therapies has not been generated yet. Read more >
The brain is a heterogeneous tissue composed of various highly interconnected cell types. Each type has a particular pattern of expression and is differentially located in the brain regions. In some pathological situations such as brain injury, cascades of metabolic, cellular and molecular events ultimately lead to brain cell death, tissue damage and atrophy. Read more >
The hypothalamus comprises neuronal clusters that are essential for body weight regulation and other physiological functions. Insights into the complex cellular physiology of this region of the brain are critical to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity, but human hypothalamic cells are largely inaccessible for direct study. Read more >
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